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Describe two common microorganisms, fungal infections and viral infections that can cause wounds:

Describe two common microorganisms, fungal infections and viral infections that can cause wounds:
(NB, this question is not asking for microorganisms, funguses or viruses that can infect existing wounds, only how each of these can lead to new wounds)
Cause Description
Common bacterial infections _______________________________________________________________________________________________
Common fungal infections _______________________________________________________________________________________________
Common viral infections _______________________________________________________________________________________________
Answer in a separate documents and attached it to the submission space provided below:
The following are clinical manifestations of arterial or venous ulcers. Match the signs and symptoms to the correct ulcer type by writing a V for venous or A for arterial
Skin may look shiny and feel tight to touch
Select one:
a. A
b. V
Question 3
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Often found on bony prominences of the foot, tips of toes or in between toes
Select one:
a. V
b. A
Question 4
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Very painful on walking
Select one:
a. A
b. V
Question 5
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Surrounding skin may feel warm to touch
Select one:
a. A
b. V
Question 6
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The skin can feel cool to touch
Select one:
a. V
b. A
Question 7
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Uneven edges, irregular shaped borders that appear moist
Select one:
a. A
b. V
Question 8
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Can be found anywhere from ankle to mid-calf
Select one:
a. A
b. V
Question 9
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Can have a wet, necrotic area or dry scab
Select one:
a. V
b. A
Question 10
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Pale and dry with little or any granulating tissue
Select one:
a. A
b. V
Question 11
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Very painful at rest
Select one:
a. V
b. A
Question 12
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Can have medium to high exudate
Select one:
a. V
b. A
Question 13
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Ulcers appear red in colour
Select one:
a. A
b. V
Question 14
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Normally shallow wound base
Select one:
a. A
b. V
Question 15
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Clean, well demarcated edges
Select one:
a. A
b. V
Describe what a “mixed ulcer” is and where it is most common on the human body:
With an A for Acute or a C for chronic, chose the correct type of wound described
Wounds that heal within a short period of time (around 6 weeks)
Select one:
a. A
b. C
Question 18
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Surgical Wounds
Select one:
a. A
b. C
Question 19
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Wounds that take from 6 weeks onwards and can take more than 12 months to heal
Select one:
a. A
b. C
Question 20
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Sacral Pressure wounds with a sinus
Select one:
a. C
b. A
Question 21
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Wounds that require Vac dressing therapy
Select one:
a. C
b. A
Question 22
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Stage 1 or 2 wound with minimal exudate and no sloughy tissue present
Select one:
a. C
b. A
Question 23
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Stage 3 and 4 wounds with high exudate and sloughy tissue present
Select one:
a. C
b. A
Question 24
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Burns (caused by direct heat or flame)
Select one:
a. C
b. A
Question 25
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Diabetic ulcers
Select one:
a. A
b. C
Question 26
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Trauma
Select one:
a. C
b. A
Question 27
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Tropical Ulcers
Select one:
a. C
b. A
28. Describe each of the four wound stages:
29. Commonly known as “bed sores”, describe how pressure ulcers occur, risk factors leading to pressure ulcers and how to recognise them
30. Describe the following tissue types;
a) Granulating
b) Sloughy
c) Necrotic
d) Epitheleal
31. Describe the characteristics of;
· First degree burns
· Second degree burns
· Third degree burns
32. Describe the difference between a fistula and a sinus:
33. Sandra lives with Type I Diabetes Mellitus. She has a sore on her foot that won’t heal.
a) What is this wound called?
b) Why are these common in people with DM?
34. a) List the three major body cavities that hold visceral organs?
b) Give three examples of visceral wounds that your clients may present with:
35. While moistness is a good sign in a wound, some discharges should be treated with caution, as they might indicate infection.
Define what following types of exudate look like and what they may indicate to a nurse:
· Serous drainage
· Sanguinous Exudate
· Serisanguineous Exudate
· Seropurulent Exudate
· Purulent Exudate
36. Describe the aetiology and manifestation of malignant wounds:
37. Wounds that are created by medical professionals include;
a) Surgical wounds
b) Skin grafts
Describe each type of wound and how they occur:
38. List the six links in the chain of infection and give a brief explanation of each one:
39. Describe at least two ways to break each link in the chain of infection:
40. What factors affect the likelihood of infection in a wound?
Include at least three and explain why you chose these factors
41. Review the NSQHS “Standard 3: Preventing and Controlling Healthcare Associated Infections” and answer the following questions:
a) What is the first criterion of this standard and what does it mean?
b) Choose three actions from this standard, and describe how you will implement them when caring for wounds:
An example action is below:
3.13.1 Mechanisms are in use for checking for pre-existing healthcare associated infections or communicable disease on presentation for care
42. hoose three other National Safety and Quality Health Service (NSQHS) Standards that can apply to wound management, and describe how?
43. How have wound management strategies evolved from historical approaches to today’s contemporary approaches?
44. Read the Royal Children’s Hospital Wound Care Clinical Guidelines (link below) and describe five key things you would need to do if you were working in this hospital.
http://www.rch.org.au/rchcpg/hospital_clinical_guideline_index/wound_care/
45. Conduct some research and find at least three community and educational resources and professional organisations associated with wound management List them here and describe briefly what they do:
46. Describe how you can apply a problem solving framework to managing care of a client’s wounds:
47. What are the key principles of wound management?
48. a) You have a client, Rosa, who is suffering from bedsores on her lower back and right hip, she is not in pain from them, but is uncomfortable because she has to stay on her left side to remove the pressure. What can you do to improve her comfort levels?
b) You have a client, Kristin, who has had surgery to reconstruct her ankle and tells you her pain is intense. She rates it as a 9 on the pain scale, and has been set up with a PCA device, which she has been using per her surgeon’s instruction, she tells you this isn’t working. What can you do to help her manage her pain?
c) Francisco has severe burns, after a deep fryer in his café broke and spilled down his thighs. He is on your ward, going through skin graft procedures. He complains that he is experiencing pain and discomfort and that he can’t seem to get any relief. What can you do to help Francisco?
49. Why is holistic assessment still important when dealing with a localised wound?
50. Can all clients with the same wound types be cared for the same way?
Why or why not?
51. Assessment of the wound itself can be conducted using a number of assessment tools and measures. Describe the following and how they apply in the clinical setting in relation to wound management
Assessment / Tool Description and application to wound care
Skin assessment ____________________________________________________________________________________
Risk assessment ____________________________________________________________________________________
Wound measurement ____________________________________________________________________________________
Clinical photography ____________________________________________________________________________________
Wound tracing ____________________________________________________________________________________
Wound specimen collection ____________________________________________________________________________________
Doppler assessment ____________________________________________________________________________________
Consulting with the interdisciplinary team to interpret lab results ____________________________________________________________________________________
Answer in a separate document and attached it to the submission space provided below:
52. There are a range of assessments and programs that can be implemented to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers forming on your clients. Describe two assessment tools and three measures you can apply to help prevent pressure ulcers in your clients:
53. For the following wound types, describe what each one is, and what dressing you would apply to it:
Wound type Description Appropriate dressing
Black ____________________ ____________________
Yellow ____________________ ____________________
Green ____________________ ____________________
Red ____________________ ____________________
Pink ____________________ ____________________
Answer in separate document and attached it to the submission space provided below:
54. Describe the principles of moist wound healing and include three benefits of moist wound healing in your response:
55. Your client, Jordan, has recently undergone surgical anastomosis to restructure after removal of a perforated portion of his bowel.
a) When caring for Jordan, what complications should you look for in this internal wound as well as his external surgical site?
b) What are the signs of an anastomotic leak?
c) What should you do if you observe signs of an anastomotic leak?
56. Describe what wound debridement is and define each of the following types of wound debridement:
a) Autolytic
b) Enzymaytic
c) Surgical
d) Mechanical
57. What is the purpose of a wound drain, and how should you care for wound drainage systems?
58. When is compression therapy used in wound care, and how does it work?
59. List the steps of manual wound cleansing techniques for
a) A linear wound
b) An open wound
As if you were creating a user guide for someone:
60. here are three steps in the process of wound healing:
· Inflammation
· Proliferation
· Remodelling
Describe each of these stages:

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